To kill a Mockingbird PDF

Summary

To kill a mockingbird PDF which is considered as the best reference to classic modern American Literature was written by Harper Lee which was published back in 1960.

The whole story of this novel and the characters are greatly swayed by the writer’s childhood annotations and reminiscences of her neighborhood and family in Monroeville, Alabama where she saw some bitter realities of society in terms of racism and prejudice. Though the issues are quite serious as well as hard to swallow the novel is renowned for its attention-grabbing depiction by the Author. Besides, it succeeded to bag the Pulitzer Prize.

Harper lee precisely high-points how poverty bolsters the two-faced nature of society in terms of their stance on race-based stratification systems. She reveals how people use the racial tool to hide their embarrassment and low self-assurance.

Plot

The story revolves around scout, a six-year-old headstrong girl who is also the chronicler of the novel. Scout lives with her elder brother Jem and her widowed father who is a lawyer by profession. They are also friends with Dill, a small boy who comes every summer to stay with her aunt. Arthur Boo Radley, a neighbor but was never seen in person and was a hidden character. One of the major lessons of judgment in his novels was depicted by this character because scout and Jem used to make fun of this unknown neighbor and judge him but as time passed and due to certain situations they come to know that boo was a kind neighbor and their prejudices proved wrong.

The height of racial discrimination at Maycomb, Alabama in the 1030s at the Great depression has been portrayed in the situations that happened in Tom Robinson where his life turned upside down when he was accused of rape a white woman named Mayella Ewell. He was charged in an attempt to rape a white woman and put it into trials. Though many citizens disapproved of the defense of rob, a black in the court, but the judge Taylor appointed Atticus, Scout’s father to defend Rob and prove his innocence. All the shreds of evidence proved that tom was innocent but being a white majority society and having supremacy, the panel convicts him. Later Tom tried to escape from the prison but they shot and killed him.

For the sake of revenge for being humiliated in the court, Bob Ewell tries to break into the judge Taylor’s house, jeopardies Tom’s widow and later on attacks Jem and scout when they were on their way back to their home at night. A stranger comes to the rescue, Jem gets wounded, and bob is killed during the fight.

To kill a Mockingbird has a definite position in literary society due to the impact that it has created in the society concerning specific crucial issues.

Themes

To Kill a Mockingbird PDF has shown a symphonic transformation of Jem and Scout’s childhood to maturity, from innocence to understanding the complex and dark realities of society. The three major and prominent themes are as follows:

Racism

The key narrative in which a black American is falsely accused of raping a white woman and the false decision of the court despite him being innocent proves the nature and intensity of racial discrimination in the resident of Maycomb. Also, the Finch family got to know the rage of the xenophobia from the community when he honestly defended Tom in the court. Racism is the major theme because Tom is imprisoned because he is purely and black and more importantly the accuser was white.

Yin and yang/ Bad vs. Good

As yin and yang interpret the concept of dualism similarly society is a blend of both good and bad. These two are inseparable. Throughout the novel, this theme has been evolved from Jem and Scout being kids having the pure and positive thought about the people and society around them and encountering the opposite as well while growing into young adults. As the story develops, they confront evil in the form of racial discrimination. They come to know that society is a blend of good and evil, but in the end, good and truth always prevail.

Prejudice

One of the traits of humans is that they judge others without knowing them. They hold grudges and hate others because of the opinion they hold toward others based on their assumption. The same is the theme of this novel where judgment has played a key role. Scout and Jem had similar judgments regarding their neighbor who later turned out to be a nice and helpful man. All through the novel, is has been preached that you should not judge other people based on their physical appearance and ignoring their situation.

Author

Harper Lee was born in 1926, and she grew up in the southern town of Monroeville, Alabama. Initially, she enrolled in Huntingdon College located in Montgomery from 1944 to 1945. Afterward, she studied law from the University of Alabama until 1949. She was a very keen writer at an early age and she used to write for the magazines at her campus which included Huntress at Huntington and the humor magazine Rammer jammer at the University of Alabama.

Her topics would revolve around topics that were considered sensitive at that time such as racial bias. To kill a Mockingbird was one of her best-known novels which were published in 1960 and also won the Pulitzer Prize and due to the succinct depiction of social issues, it is considered as a classic in modern American literature.

Yet Lee issued only two books and she was bestowed by the Presidential Medal of Freedom back in 2007 for her significant contribution to literature. Besides, she also acknowledged various honorary degrees. She spent her last days in Monroeville, Alabama and died at an age of 89 on February 19, 2016.

Biography of Harper Lee

Characters

Following are the main characters which have been discussed in To Kill a Mockingbird PDF:

Scout

Also named as Jean Louise Finch is the central character who also tells the story in the novel. This is the character who encounters the evil and virtuous side in human nature.

Jeremy Finch

His nickname is Jem and is the older brother of Scout, in this novel his characters have been portrayed as a caring figure.

Atticus Finch

Father of Scout and Jem, who is a lawyer by profession and has high moral values.

Tom Robinson

The black American who was falsely accused of rape and later shot dead trying to slip away from prison.

Arthur Boo Radley

The neighbor whom they haven’t met in person or seen him. f) Mayella Ewell: the white woman who accused tom of rape.

Bob Ewell

A member of the poorest families in Maycomb. His character represents the dark, ignorant and hateful side of the south.

Charles Baker Dill Harris

A small boy, friends with Jem and Scout who used to spend summers at her aunt was also a neighbor.

Calpurnia

Calpurnia is a black woman and cook of the Finches’ family.

Miss Maudie Atkinson

Miss Maudie Atkinson is also a neighbor and a good friend with children and the family. k) Aunt Alexandra: scout’s aunt.

Link Deas

Tom’s employer and in this novel is a preacher of racial impartiality.

Mrs. Henry Lafayette Dubose

Mrs. Henry Lafayette Dubose a backer of racism.

Nathan Radley

He has depicted Boo Radley’s brother in the novel.

Heck Tate

A sheriff of Maycomb who tries to ensure that justice must be served to Tom.

Mr. Underwood

Mr. Underwood a friend of Atticus.

Mr. Dolphus Raymond

Basically a white but preferably lives with black after worn-out by the double standards of white society.

Mr. Walter Cunningham

One of the participants of the mob who tried to assassinate Tom at the jail and is a poor farmer.

Taylor

The judge who appoints Atticus to defend Tom Robinson in the court.

Quotes

Following are the best quotes from the book To kill a Mockingbird:

  • “Things are never as bad as they seem”
  • “What good are wings without the courage to fly”
  • “People generally see what they look for and hear what they listen for”
  • “was times like these when I thought my father, who hated guns and had never been to any wars was the bravest man who ever lived”
  • “I think there’s just one kind of folks. Folks.”
  • “The one thing that doesn’t abide by majority rule is a person’s conscience”
  • “You never really understand a person until you consider things from his point of view-until you climb into his skin and walk around in it.”
  • “Sometimes the bible in the hand of one man is worse than a whiskey bottle in the hand of another.”
  • “Shoot all the blue jays you want, if you can’t hit them, but remember it’s a sin to kill a mocking bird.”

FAQs about To Kill a Mockingbird

Boo finally comes out of his privacy to save the children, Jem and Scout when Bob Ewell attacks them. During that fight, bob got killed. A conversation between Atticus and Sheriff Heck about how to save Jem and Boo takes place. Here Atticus proved the values of justice and morals by not fearing to accept Jem’s involvement in the whole process. But on the other hand, they also wanted to protect Boo Radley’s secrecy that’s why ended up with covering up the Boo’s actions a defensive in the fight.

The main lesson that this novel teaches us is that good as well bad both are human nature and there is always a conflict between these two, but in the end, truth always prevails. It teaches us how we should avoid prejudice and racial discrimination to avoid any inequality.

Boo is the secretive and unseen neighbor. The kids have only heard about him so they judge him based on their assumptions which later proves to be wrong. He has shown a kind side of humanity in this novel. He not only leaves small presents for Scout and Jem but also saved them by showing up at a very appropriate moment.

Full name of Jem’s is Jeremy Finch.

Harper Lee in an interview said about the publication of her book that, “… I was hoping for a quick and merciful death at the hands of the reviewers …” but very soon her book was on the top of the bestseller and it rests with more than 30 million copies in print. It also won the title of “Best Novel of the century”.

The novel is based on Lee’s experience. To kill a Mockingbird is lightly based on the annotations of her family and neighbors and is mainly inspired by an incident that happened near her home when she was only 10. The book is based on the illogical behavior of people regarding racial and class differences. All the observations influenced Lee to write this novel where she told the injustices based on race in her region.

The title has a very precise connection with the whole story. Mockingbirds represents the innocence one has. We should not harm another merely based on their physical appearances. 

This novel is about the discrimination, poverty, bigotry, racism, disparity and many other social evils. The mockingbird symbolizes the innocence, the innocence which was crushed because of the racial differences.

This novel is about the discriminations, poverty, bigotry, racism, disparity and many other social evils. The mockingbird symbolizes the innocence, the innocence which was crushed because of the racial differences.

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